Decontamination and Disinfection Services
The process of cleansing a substance or object to remove hazardous material including infectious diseases, radioactive substances and chemicals is decontamination. Prevention of the spread of microorganism and other noxious contaminants which has the risk of threatening the health of human beings or animals and may damage the environment is the purpose of decontamination. The fields in which decontamination is applied is medical environments that include veterinary science, surgery and dentistry.
Not only is decontamination applied in the medical sector but also in environmental science, forensic science and food preparation. The process of decontamination involves three methods so as to eliminate pathogens or other substances from a spoiled implement. Disinfection, sterilization and sanitization are the three levels of decontamination.
Disinfectants are used in the level of disinfection in order to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects. The process of disinfection doesn’t necessarily kill all the microorganisms especially resistant bacterial spores but is effective to others. The most effective type of microorganism elimination is sterilization which kills all types of microorganism. Microorganisms are eliminated by the process of disinfection through destroying the cell wall of microbes or interfering with their metabolism.
Disinfectants are of various types which include; oxidizing agents, phenolics, quaternary ammonium compounds , inorganic compounds and others. Inorganic compounds as a type of disinfectant include; chlorine, acids and bases, terpenes, metals and iodine.Quaternary compounds are a large group of related compounds in which some have concentrated formulations.A large group of related compounds which have concentrated formulations are quaternary ammonium compounds. Inorganic compounds such as chlorine are a group of aqueous solution that include chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite.
In the process of decontamination there are several methods that are involved and they are; physical cleaning, disinfection, antisepsis, sterilization, ultrasonic cleaning and water purification. The process involving removal of biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases and undesirable chemicals from water is water purification. Usually drinking water is disinfected for the purpose of human consumption and water purification aids in these.
The process of water purification ensures the following applications are fulfilled and they include medical, pharmacological, industrial and chemical. Physical methods in water purification include sedimentation, filtration and distillation while chemical methods are flocculation and chlorination while finally biological procesess include biologically actiave carbon or slow sand filters.
When water is purified the concentration of particulate matter which includes parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi and suspended particles are reduced as well as the concentration range of dissolved and particulate matter. A method of decontamination that involves removing or eliminating, deactivation or killing all forms of life and any other biological agents like fungi, bacteria, viruses, unicellular organisms that are present in a specified region such as the volume of a fluid, medication or in a compound that is culture media is sterilization which is also a level of decontamination. In order to achieve sterilization then heating, irradiation, filtration and high pressure are used.